In the study titled “Effects of Extrinsic Rewards on Children’s Subsequent Intrinsic Interest” by David Greene and Mark R. Lepper, the authors investigate the impact of external rewards on a child’s intrinsic motivation. The study explores whether providing tangible rewards for an activity diminishes a child’s inherent interest in that activity.
The researchers conducted experiments involving children engaging in creative tasks and found that offering extrinsic rewards, such as stickers or prizes, can sometimes lead to a reduction in the child’s intrinsic interest in the task. This phenomenon is often referred to as the “overjustification effect.” Essentially, when children are rewarded for an activity they initially found enjoyable on its own, the introduction of external rewards can shift their focus away from the intrinsic enjoyment of the activity and towards the rewards themselves. Consequently, when the rewards are no longer available, the child may lose interest in the activity.
In summary, Greene and Lepper’s study suggests that while extrinsic rewards can be effective in motivating children to engage in certain activities initially, they may have unintended consequences by undermining the child’s intrinsic interest in the long term.
Enhancing intrinsic motivation among young children for language learning can be a rewarding and effective approach. Here are some strategies to foster intrinsic motivation in young language learners:
1. Create a Positive Learning Environment:
◦ Make the language learning environment welcoming, comfortable, and safe.
◦ Incorporate bright colors, engaging visuals, and age-appropriate materials.
◦ Establish clear routines and expectations to reduce anxiety.
2. Cultivate Curiosity:
◦ Introduce topics, stories, or cultural aspects related to the target language that pique children’s natural curiosity.
◦ Encourage questions and exploration, allowing them to discover the language and culture organically.
3. Make Learning Playful:
◦ Incorporate games, songs, rhymes, and interactive activities into language lessons.
◦ Use props and hands-on experiences to make learning enjoyable and memorable.
4. Connect Language to Real-Life Experiences:
◦ Show children how language is relevant to their lives by using it in everyday situations.
◦ Involve them in activities such as cooking, shopping, or storytelling in the target language.
5. Celebrate Progress and Effort:
◦ Praise children for their efforts, persistence, and small achievements.
◦ Create a positive atmosphere where mistakes are viewed as opportunities to learn.
6. Provide Autonomy and Choice:
◦ Allow children to have some control over their learning. Let them choose topics, activities, or books they are interested in.
◦ Give them opportunities to express themselves in the target language.
7. Set Meaningful Goals:
◦ Establish goals that are achievable and personally meaningful to the child.
◦ Encourage them to track their progress and celebrate when they reach milestones.
8. Foster Social Interaction:
◦ Arrange opportunities for children to interact with peers who speak the target language.
◦ Encourage group activities, language clubs, or language exchange programs.
9. Use Technology Wisely:
◦ Incorporate age-appropriate language learning apps, videos, and interactive websites that align with their interests.
◦ Monitor screen time and ensure it complements other learning activities.
10. Be a Role Model:
◦ Demonstrate your own enthusiasm for language learning and cultural appreciation.
◦ Share stories about your experiences with different languages and cultures.
11. Connect Language to Personal Goals:
◦ Help children see how language proficiency can open doors to exciting opportunities, such as traveling, making friends, or exploring careers.
12. Encourage Self-Reflection:
◦ Teach children to reflect on their language learning journey, including their strengths, challenges, and areas of interest.
◦ Use journaling or discussion to promote self-awareness.
Remember that every child is unique, so it’s important to adapt these strategies to suit their individual interests and learning styles. Building intrinsic motivation takes time and patience, so continue to nurture their love for language learning as they grow. In the big picture, it’s all about keeping the love for learning alive and remember, learning languages is an adventure that can last a lifetime!